Tuesday, April 8, 2014

Multiverse Theory: Eternal Inflation

This post describes two theories of how "bubble regions" are or have been formed.

The first theory is eternal inflation.  Inflation is the
expansion of an infinite amount particles originating from a subatomic point in space that ignite as they expands which is what created the big bang and theoretically other explosions like it. Eternal inflation is the idea that inflation still continues in some parts of the universe, and will continue forever.  Eternal inflation says that there have been multiple big bangs and that more have yet to happen.  Each big bang creates a group of galaxies, stars, solar systems, and planets, similar to the ones we are familiar with within the Hubble volume: the bubble in which all of the observable objects in our universe are contained.  These "bubble regions" continuously form and are pushed away from each other by their rate of expansion, which in turn creates room for new bubble regions to form and expand.  The rate of expansion is faster than the speed of light - thus, any objects beyond the Hubble region means that said objects are traveling too fast to be reached or observed from our region.

The second theory is the ekpyrotic theory.  This theory says that two branes collided and created many different bubble regions - but ones that do not perpetually expand like the ones in eternal inflation.  Multiple bubble regions were created by when the two branes collided, there were multiple points of impact which ignited and formed.  Also, in this theory, each collision would create its own bubble region with its own laws of nature - also unlike the bubble regions in eternal inflation that are all created in more or less the same way, meaning they share the same conditions as the rest

This about concludes the series of posts I have about the multiple definitions of alternate universes.  The next post for next week will be about time travel and how it can assist in creating alternate universes.

Multiverse Theory: Points of Singularity Within Black Holes

The first definition of an alternate universe is given through the theory of black holes having points of singularity.

A point of singularity within a black hole is where the curvature of space-time becomes infinitely vast, all matter is crushed into zero volume and infinite density in consequence of infinite gravity.  In effect, there is a possibility of all physical laws being void as space and time no longer exist as we know them.  If one of our physical laws within our known universe were to be changed within these points of singularity (such as any of Newton's laws of motion), than that would create a space separate from our own universe, as our universe must abide by our laws of physics.  This could possibly happen by an increase or decrease in nuclear force, which would in turn effect how atoms link to one another.

If this were true, than this implies all universes originated from black holes and deviated in nature from their "parent" universe.  It is an infinite cycle that continues based upon the assumption that there is an infinite amount of particles to be transferred from one universe to the next.

There are so many assumptions that need to be made to accept this theory and the others that will follow in my later posts.  In all cases, there are not even theoretical ways of accessing these alternate universes, if in fact they even exist, so it's very hard to prove or disprove any of them.  It is fun to think about them, I think, and there's more fun to come.

Multiverse Theory: Mathematical Democracy Principle

Another form of an alternate universe is described through the mathematical democracy principle.

The mathematical democracy principle says that any universe that is mathematically possible most likely already exists.  This theory does not do much in explaining how they are formed.  They could exist in certain "bubble regions" defined in the ekpyrotic theory - which I will describe in a later post.  Or they could be formed from points of singularity within black holes.  Either way is entirely possible.

This is a short post, I know, but there's not much more to be said about how this kind of multiverse can be formed or act.

Multiverse Theory: Hilbert Space

This theory is about infinite dimensions and how they create alternate universes.  This is one of the most abstract theories out there.

Hilbert space expands upon Euclidean space, including more than three dimensions: length, width, and depth.  This implies infinite dimensions, infinite "layers" of reality.   Within most of these layers theoretically lie alternate
courses particular objects have taken, or rather different experiences objects have undergone.  Since these "layers" are dimensions of reality, they technically all coexist and operate within the same time but different space.  These kinds of alternate universes are the only ones you will ever come into contact with; but you will never be able to look into them.  For every decision you make, there is an alternate universe, an alternate dimension, that exists where you did not finish your homework on time, or you did not eat breakfast, squish that spider, call your friend, etc.

With these kinds of alternate universes, you are in constant contact, facing moments that define your universe from another.  (There's a universe where this post was never published.)

Wednesday, April 2, 2014

Introduction to the Multiverse Theory

Thanks to a comment on my last blog left by Josh, I now know that "those little, colorless and transparent, circles that float in front of your eyes" are called phosphenes: a spot of light on the eyeball produced by pressure or stimulation of the visual system other than light.  In other words, phosphenes are not dead blood cells - what I said they were was false.  My bad.

This post is an introduction to a series of later posts I will do about the multiverse theory: the theory that there are alternate universes than the one we all live in.  Our universe is defined by what we can see and explain in the cosmos.  There are multiple ways of defining alternate universes: Hilbert space, the mathematical democracy principle, the idea of singularity within black holes; there is also the idea that there are an infinite amount of "bubble regions" that are defined either by eternal inflation or the ekpyrotic theory.

Unfortunately, I spent too much time researching this topic to write about it this week.  But now, I am prepared with the information necessary to write about the multiverse theory.  For each theory regarding a definition of an alternate universe, I will write a single post.  I will then write a spin-off post about time travel and how it can aid in the creation of alternate universes.

Information cited:

  • http://www.space.com/21675-time-travel.html
  • http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/the-theory-of-parallel-universes.html
  • http://www.astronomy.pomona.edu/Projects/moderncosmo/Sean's%20mutliverse.html
  • http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/multiverse-the-case-for-parallel-universe/
  • http://www.wired.com/2010/02/what-is-time/
  • http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/010912a.html