Monday, February 23, 2015

The Beast Everyone Knows But No One has Seen

This post is yet another link to one of my short stories.  This is a two page story (4 if you're used to reading works that are double-spaced); please comment all you like.

The Beast Everyone Knows but No One has Seen

Tuesday, February 17, 2015

The Satyagraha Movements

The Satyagraha Movements were a series of acts of civil disobedience, mainly spearheaded by Mahatma Gandhi.  Here is a link to a power point presentation my friend and I have done for History on the Satyagraha Movements.

Monday, February 9, 2015

How Much Empty Space is Within the Average Human Body?

For starters, we need to know the average human volume, which is 0.07m^3.

Because all material things in existence are composed of atoms, we need to know how much empty space is within an atom, which is 99.9999999999996%.

Now that we know all material things in the world are 99% empty space, then we can conclude that our own bodies are made of 99% empty space and multiply our volume by 99%, which would give us 0.0693m^3.

Finally, to make this measurement a little more imaginable, we shall convert 0.0693m^3 to cm^3 using this conversion factor: 1cm^3 = 1x10^-6 m^3.  The result would equal 


What this means is there are 69,300 cubes that are 1cm tall, wide, and long within the human body.

In case you are unaware of my previous posts, I have attempted this problem, twice in two different posts, with no success.

Thanks to the help of Scott Vincent Young, my English teacher who commented on my last post, I now know what was missing in my previous calculations.  He showed me that I was missing the crucial conversion factor for cm^3 to m^3.  I thought that the conversion factor for cubic measurements would be the same as the conversion factors you'd use on 2-D planes.  Consequently I got an answer, 0.0693m^3 or 6.93cm^3, which I knew was wrong.  And I continued my research in overly complicated calculations where there is a very big margin for error, I fell right into it.  I found the abundance of all the prominent elements within the human body and multiplied their percentages by the approximate amount of atoms in the human body (7x10^27 atoms.)  Then I multiplied those products to their element's volume, which I had previously multiplied by 99%.  Then I added all of those products together and got 1.779770609x10^17m^3, which is also wrong.  The main reason I got that wrong was because I did not convert pm^3 to m^3 properly.  It was the same problem I encountered with converting cm^3 to m^3.

Monday, February 2, 2015

How Much Empty Space is there within the Atoms of the Human Body? (Cont.)

DISCLAIMER:  This post does not have accurate information.  Please leave a comment to help the author with correcting his work.

On Wednesday, October 8, 2014, I attempted to answer this question by finding the volume of the average human body ( 0.07m^3) and multiplying it with the average amount of empty space within an atom (99.9999999999996%); the product of the equation was 0.0693m^3.  What that number means is, assuming that all these numbers are accurate, there are 6.93 cubes 1 cm tall, long, and wide that equal the amount of empty space within the average human body.

As I wrote in the previous blog post with the same name, "atoms are the basic building blocks for all matter in the universe."  And since the average empty space within an atom is ~99%, than the whole universe is ~99% empty space; which in turn can be applied to our own bodies.  When I look at about 7 cubes that are 1 cm tall, long, and wide (which would actually be our entire volume, according to my sources), I know that the amount of space they take up does not equal ~99% of my own volume.

So here I am, sitting at home, writing a followup post to refine my old work and bring to you readers a more accurate answer to the question, how much empty space is there within the atoms of the human body?  First we shall find the volumes of all the most prevalent elements that compose our bodies and multiply their volumes by their approximate quantity inside our bodies.  And then we shall add those numbers together, multiplying it by 99%, which will result in a more accurate volume which we can then compare to our own. (Even though this number solution should be more accurate than the last, it is still an approximation, just as all of these other facts in this post.)

Firstly, most of our body is made of oxygen (65%), carbon (18.5%), phosphorous (1%), nitrogen (3.2%), hydrogen (9.5%), and calcium (1.5%).  There are almost 7x10^27 atoms in the human body.  Now if 7x10^27 were to be multiplied by the percent of each element to find their abundance, there would be...

Oxygen: 4.55x10^27 atoms
Carbon: 1.295x10^27 atoms
Phosphorous: 7x10^25 atoms
Nitrogen: 2.24x10^26 atoms
Hydrogen: 6.65x10^26 atoms
Calcium: 1.05x10^26 atoms

Now that we have each elements' abundance number, we have to find their volumes.  To find their volumes, we have to know their atomic radius:

Oxygen: 6.6x10^-13m
Carbon: 7.6x10^-13m
Phosphorous: 1.07x10^-14m
Nitrogen: 7.1x10^-13m
Hydrogen: 3.1x10^-13m
Calcium: 1.76x10^-14m

With this information, we can plug the numbers into the equation for spherical volume, 
V=(4/3)rπ^3, and get...

Oxygen: 2.72855235x10^-11m^3
Carbon: 3.14196937x10^-11m^3 
Phosphorous: 4.42356214x10^-13m^3
Nitrogen: 2.93526086x10^-11m^3
Hydrogen: 1.28159277x10^-11m^3
Calcium: 7.27613959x10^-13m^3

The next step is to multiply each atoms' volume by their abundance.  These are the products:

Oxygen: 1.24215x10^17m^3
Carbon: 4.0663x10^16m^3
Phosphorous: 3.0961x10^13m^3
Nitrogen: 6.5744x10^15pm^3
Hydrogen: 8.512x10^15pm^3
Calcium: 1.848x10^12pm^3

And finally, we shall add these numbers together and see how they compare to 99% of the average volume of the human body (which is 0.07m^3).  The sum of the volumes is 1.79774809x10^17m^3 x 99% = 1.779770609x10^17m^3.  THIS IS OBVIOUSLY THE WRONG ANSWER, BUT I'VE DONE EACH PART OF THE PROBLEM OVER AND OVER AGAIN AND CAN'T GET THE NUMBER ANY LOWER WITH THE INFORMATION I'VE FOUND.

As I see it, there are only two things that could have gone wrong with this formula:  One, I confused the measurements with the atoms' radii, or Two, I could have the wrong idea on what 0.07m^3 means.  Maybe it amounts to something more than 7 cubes that are all 1 cm tall, long, and wide.  Not only does the idea of 7 cubes that are 1 cm tall, long, and wide equaling the average human volume completely allude me, the final answer of this formula is way off with the estimated 0.0693m^3 of empty space within each human body.

No matter what, I shall not accept defeat!  I will return to this problem again, sooner or later.  There is an answer to this question, and I shall find it.  Please, if any of you readers see a critical error in my work, leave a comment and help me find the answer to this question.